Lighthouse Initiative for Texas Classrooms

AP* Science Free-Response Terminology

These phrases have been used in previous AP* science tests. Using these same phrases in Pre-AP* courses will help prepare the student for AP tests and will enhance their essay writing skills.

Account for the fact...

Calculate...

Choose three of the following and...(from one free-response question)

Compare...

Describe...

Describe an experiment...

Describe and discuss...

Describe how to change the conditions of the experiment to...

Describe the...and explain...

Design a/an (controlled) experiment...

Determine...as a function of...

Determine the value of...

Discuss...

Draw and label...

Estimate...

Explain...

Explain and defend or refute this statement...

Explain how to calculate...

Explain how you could experimentally determine...

Explain the implications of...

Explain the meaning of...

Explain your reasoning...

Express your answer in terms of...

Graph the data...

Identify a reasonable source of experimental error and the effect it would have on your measured value...

Identify another example of...

Indicate how...

Indicate whether...

Justify your answer...

Justify your prediction...

List and describe...

List measurements that must be made in order to...

Make an argument for...

Outline the procedures...

Plot these data...

Propose...

Propose a hypothesis...

Provide one argument for...

Select...and describe (or explain)...

Show calculations to support your answer...

Show the setup for the calculations...

Show your work...

Sketch...

State clearly...

Summarize the pattern...

Suppose...What effect would this have on the calculated value of...? Justify your answer.

Trace...

Using principles of...

What effect... Justify...

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